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Publishing Terminology

Confused about what those publishing terms mean. Get clarification from the list below.

Align Arrange type and/or graphics horizontally and/or vertically.
ANSI Federation The ANSI Federation's primary goal is the enhancement of global competitiveness of U.S. business and the American quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems and promoting their integrity. The Institute represents the interests of its nearly 1,400 company, organization, government agency, institutional and international members. ANSI does not itself develop American National Standards (ANSs); rather it facilitates development by establishing consensus among qualified groups.
Ascender Stroke of a lowercase letter extending above the x-height (i.e. b, d, h, k, l).

A juvenile audience comprises grades pre-K thru 6th and includes the age levels of 1 thru 11.

Young adults encompass grade levels 7 thru 12 and ages 12-17.

El-Hi comprises elementary thru high school texts. Texts are intended for educational of classroom settings.

Backmatter The part of the book that follows the text pages. This generally includes reference material such as notes, bibliography, references, appendixes, glossary, and index.
Backing up Printing the second side of a sheet so the running heads, folios, etc. match the position of those on the other side.
Backs The spine of a book.
Base line The line on which both capital and lowercase letters stand.
Basis weight The weight (in pounds) of a ream (500 sheets) of a paper cut to a given standard (basis size). Each major paper grade (such as cover, bond, or offset) has its own basic sheet size that determines its basic weight. For example, the basic size of book paper is 25" x 38" for 500 sheets. So, 500 sheets of 70 lb. offset book paper that is 25" x 38" actually weigh seventy poinds.
Biblio The verso of the title page where bibliographical details of the edition appear. This is also known as the copyright page.
Binder's board Various grades of grey board used in making hard cover books, manufactured to a particular thickness.

A hardcover trade is a cloth or hardbound edition that is intended for an adult and is available to the trade.

A hardcover text is a cloth or hardbound edition that is intended for an educational or classroom setting and is sold through educational market channels.

These same definitions apply to paperback bindings.

BISAC subject A subject classification of book titles. BISAC, the Book Industry Systems Advisory Committee started up as a result of a meeting to promote the use of the ISBN. BISAC has been a Committee of the Book Industry Study Group since 1980.
BISG The Book Industry Study Group (BISG), a membership-supported, not-for-profit research organization, is comprised of organizations from every sector of the publishing community. Its goal is to provide accurate and current research information about the industry for its members and others. BISG supports the use of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), the transfer of business documents between computers, used to send purchase orders, invoices, and shipping notices, among others.
Bleed To extend a printed area beyond one or more of the trimmed edges of a page. Also, the extra width added to artwork to make bleeding possible, normally 1/8" (3 mm.) beyond the trim.
Bold Heavier version of a particular typeface.
Book block The assembled glued or sewn text pages of a book before the cover has been put on.
Book manufacturing Manufacturing Your Book by Thompson-Shore
Book size The trim size of the book, i.e., 6" x 9" is 6 inches wide by 9 inches high.
Book weight How much will my book weigh?
Bulk The thickness of a sheet of paper.
Bullet Typesettig term for an open or solid circle or similar geometric form (frequently used to highlight individual features within a listing).
Camera ready art (CRA) Complete type and line artwork pasted up into final page position for reproduction. Sometimes known as mechanical art.
Caption Copy which identifies or describes an illustration.
Case binding The form of bookbinding in which a case manufactured from binder1s board and covered in cloth or paper is attached to the book block. This is also known as hard-cover binding.
Chap book
Center spread The two facing pages at the center of a section or signature (e.g. pages 8 and 9 in a sixteen page signature).
The purpose of the Cataloging in Publication (CIP) program is to prepare prepublication cataloging records for those books most likely to be widely acquired by the nation's libraries. For further information about the CIP program and how your publishing house may apply for participation in the program, write to:
Library of Congress, Cataloging in Publication Division, COLL/CIP (4320) Washington, DC 20450-4320.
CMYK Initials designating cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. These are the four subtractive primary colors used to reproduce the widest range of colors in printing, and known as the four process colors.
Collating Gathering sections in the correct order.
Color distribution Pages available for color use according to the imposition of pages on a press-sheet.
Contributor First and last names and middle initials of authors, illustrators, photographer, editor, or translator.
Copyright date The year a publication is registered for copyright with the Library of Congress
Color laser print An economical alternative to a photographic print (used for checking layout and design).
Color matching system An ink system which provides designers with a wide range of ik color choices and provides printers with corresponding ink-mixing formulas. The "Pantone" system is the most widely used.
Color separation Negatives created by breaking down a full color original into four process colors. Each color (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) is output on a separate piece of negative film.
Condensed typefaces Narrow versions of a particular typeface.
Continuous tone An image, such as a black and white photograph, that has gradatios of relative grey toes ranging from black to white.
Crop marks Right angle marks near outer edges of artwork to show where the finished product is to be trimmer.
Cropping Cutting an illustration to fit a given area or to remove unwanted background to improve composition.
Customer alterations Changes requested by the client after checking proofs, rather than errors made by the printer. The costs of implementing CAs are normally billed to the customer.
Cut-line Shadow caused by edge of pasted-in art work that shows up as a line when photographed.
dpi Dots per inch
Descender Stroke of a lower case letter which falls below the x-height as In the letters g j p q.
Dingbats Special decorative typographic symbols used for identifying display items or for special emphasis within text.
Dot gain A problem that occurs when dots i a screened image print larger than necessary, thus darkening the image.
Double-page spread A pair of facing pages, considered a unit for design purposes.
Drop cap The first letter of a paragraph, much larger than the other character, inset ito the body copy.
Dummy An unprinted prototype of a book that suggests its final appearance and size. This can be used to evaluate spine width, page imposition, and color breakdown, among other things.
Duotone An illustrative technique whereby two halftone negatives of different contrast ranges are printed in two different colors. Usually the more detailed exposure provides the base, and is printed in black or a dark shade of ink. The lighter exposure overprints this in a lighter shade of ink and colors the lighter tinted areas.
EDItEUI EDItEUR is an organization established and sponsored by the Federation of European Publishers, the European Booksellers Federation and the European Bureau of Library, Information & Documentation Associations, to co-ordinate the development, promotion and implementation of electronic commerce in the international books and serials sector.
Electronic scanner A machine which produces color separations from full color art or photographs. Using laser technology, the machine reads color densities of the four process colors from the illustration, which is wrapped around a drum or passed through a flat bed
Endpaper A folded sheet of heavy paper found at the front and back of case-bound books. These leaves join the text of the book to the binding. Also known s endsheet.
Enlargement An illustration or photograph that is reproduced at a larger size than the original. The specifications for an enlargement are calculated with a proportion wheel as a percentage of the original size.
Even working Where the extent of a book is made to fit a given number of sections.
Expanded A wide version of a particular typeface. Also known as extended.
Extned The eventual number of pages it is decided that a title shall consist of.
Final proof A copy of the design (including type and/or art) as it will appear in the final form.
Flat artwork Color illustration which has been drawn on illustration board.
Flush left or right Type that is aligned to the left or right, leaving the other margin ragged. Also known s unjustified.
Foil blocking The process of applying a metallic or pigmented foil decoration to a cover by a heated die.
Fold-out An oversize sheet folded to fit within the trim of a book that opens out beyond the page size.
Foliio The page number of a book.
Foot or tail margin Margin at the bottom of the page.
Fore edge The outer vertical, trimmed edge of a book, opposite the spine.
Fore-edge margins The margis that correspond to the outside edge of the book; the left margin on let-hand pages, and the right margin on right-hand pages.
Format The trimmed size of a book; alternately, the arrangement of type on a page.
Font The total characters in a complete thypeface, including caps, lowercase, figures, and punctuation.
French groove The groove that is formed between the spie and covers of a case-bound book.
Frontispiece An illustrative plate that faces the title page.
Full color Printing process where all four colors, (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) are printed to create a full range of colors (as found in color photographs or artwork). This is also referred to as process color.
Galley proof Text supplied iin continuous columns, not divided into pages.
Grain direction The direction in which the fibres of paper are aligned, and along which if folds most easily.
Gutter The two inside amrgis of facig pages. Allowance should be made for the biding process when determining size of the gutter.
Half title The first printed page of a book. It consists only of the main title of the book.
Half tones A photograph or other continuous tone image that has been broken up into fine dots for reproduction. This process duplicates the range of greys within the image. See the Half Tone Guide by Thompson-Shore
Head margin The space between the top of the page and the first line of type.
Headband A decorative piece of cotton or silk that is attached to the bottom and top of the spine of a book before lining is attached to it.
Hollow The rounded space formed behind the spine of a case-bound book.
Illustrations Illustrations include, but are not limited to, photographs, line drawings, charts, tables, diagrams, and maps.
Image setter A device that outputs a high-resolution image on film, paper, or plate.
Imposition The arrangement of pages on the printing plate. When the printed sheet is folded, the page sequence is correct. Also called pagination.
Ink holdout Resistance to the penetration of ink in a paper. Paper with coatig tend to have good ink holdout. The nk pigments sit on the surface of the coadings, and are not absorbed into the spaces I between the fibres I nthe paper. This minimizes dot spread and results in a sharper image. Uncoated papers tend to absorb ink into the sheet, but printers can compensate to produce a very bright and sharp image.
Insert A section of a book that is printed separately, usually on different paper than the text, that is tipped inor placed loosely in the book. It is rarely bound in.
ISBN ISBN Information
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries, one from each country. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO's work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards.
ISSN The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is a code used on catalogues, databases or commercial transactions each time serial publications are involved. In order to fulfil its goal in an efficient way, the ISSN, as any standardized international code, must be universally used. It is thus available for all partners concerned, at each stage of the information chain.
Jacket paper Normally a high-gloss paper designed as a cover that wraps and protects the cover of a case-bound book. Also known as a dust cover.
Justification The process of spacing out words I a column of type so that all the lies in that column are of the same length.
Kerning In typesettin, adjusting the space between type characters so that parts of a letter that extend beyone the type body overlap the letter next to it; used to even spacng.
Keyline An outline that shows size and placement of an illustration. This can either be printed or removed prior to printing. Creation of an image by eleminating background
Lamination This is a protect polyester or nylon coating applied to a book cover or jacket. It comes in both gloss and matte finishes.
Landscape A document that is wider than it is high.
LCCN The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a number assigned by the Library of Congress to an individual bibliographic item.
Leading This si the space between lines of text.
Letterspacing In typesetting, adding space between letters.
Library binding A special reinforced binding sold only to libraries.
Library of Congress The Library of Congress' mission is to make its resources available and useful to the Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations. The Library serves as the research arm of Congress and is recognized as the national library of the United States. Its collections comprise the world's most comprehensive record of human creativity and knowledge. Open to those above high school age without charge or special permission, it is the world's largest library and a great resource to scholars and researchers.
Line artwork Artowrk that consists of solid black or white areas, with continuous tone.
Line screen Number of lines of dots per inch on a halftone screen.
Lining Material used to reinforce the spine of case-bound books.
lpi Lines per inch.
Margins The blank areas between the text and the edges of the page.
Mark-ups The instructions on a manuscript with specifications for typ fonts and sizes, spacing, indents, placement of illustration, and so on.
Mask Mask is any material used by printers to block out areas on the negative or printing plate that should not print. Alternatively, the process of blockig out such areas.
Mass market A mass market paperback is a rack-sized paperback sold in various retail outlets in addition to bookstores. Only a select group of publishers are considered mass market paperback publishers.
Measure The width of a column of text.
NISO The National Information Standards Organization (NISO)is a nonprofit association accredited as a standards developer by the American National Standards Institute, the national clearinghouse for voluntary standards development in the U.S. NISO is a leader in shaping international standards. The goal in using technical standards in information services, libraries, and publishing is to achieve compatibility and therefore interoperability between equipment, data, practices, and procedures in order to make information services more productive.
Offprint Additional printed copies of selected pages from a larger journal or work.
Opacity The degree to which a paper is translucent.
Original Original artwork, drawing or photograph.
Original paperback An original paperbound edition of a book that has never before been printed in any style of binding, including hardcover.
Orphan The first lie of a paragraph that appears as single line of type at the bottom of a page; or the last lie of a paragraph that appears as a single line of type at the top of a page.
Overlay A sheet of paper or transparent material that is placed over the artwork. Sometimes this carries instructions; sometimes it bears tpng or other artwork that is intended to be combined with the artwork underneath.
Page make-up Computer assembly of text, illustration and other elements to produce a finished page.
Pages The number of pages of text, preceded by pages with Roman numerals, i.e., IX, 250 pps. This indicates that there are nine pages devoted to a foreword, acknowledgements, etc., followed by 250 pages of the actual text.
Pagination The numbering of pages in correct sequence.
Pantone The name of a color matching system where ink colors are identified by given numbers e.g. PMS 301 (PMS: Pantone Matching System).
Paper edition A book with sewn text pages and a soft cover. Also known as sewn soft cover.
Paper stock Paper and Card Stock by Thompson-Shore
Perfect binding A binding process whereby a soft cover is adhered to signatures by glue at the spine.
Point size The height of the characters of the text.
Pica A unit of typographic measurement equalling 12 points, or 1/6 of an inch.
Pont The basic unit of typographic measurement; approximately 1/72nd of an inch.
Portrait A document that is higher than it is wide.
ppi Pixels per inch
PPI pages per inch
Prelims (preliminaries) The front matter of the book, before the text pages, often numbered with roman numerals. Prelims include such things as the title page, table of contents, foreword, dedication, acknowledgements, and so on.
Process colors Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black, the four color inks that, when blended, reproduce the widest range of colors.
Process color separations See color separations.
Proof A representation of what an image will look like when printed. These can be created I many ways, and are used to check for errors or as reference when preparing materials for press.
Publication date The month and year a publication is received from the printer and is available for sale.
Publisher The publishing company that issued the ISBN.
Publisher order number An in-house number for publisher's inventory control. Applicable to paperback bindings only.
PUBNET PUBNET, the Electronic Commerce division of AAP, provides electronic data interchange service (EDI) to over 90 publishers representing hundreds of subsidiaries and imprints. Over 3,700 bookstores, libraries, wholesalers, and schools are now buying books electronically through PUBNETÆ, making it the largest EDI trading community of booksellers and publishers in the world. PUBNETÆ also maintains a high-quality title database of over 340,000 titles from PUBNETÆ publishers. This database, specifically designed for the higher education market, is linked to the ordering system to facilitate the fulfillment process and can also be accessed separately as a product information source.
Recto The right-hand page of a gook.
Reduction An illustration or photograph that is reproduced at a smaller size than the original. The specifications for a reduction are calculated with a proportion wheen as a percentage of original size.
Reflective art Non-transparent originals, such as illustrations or photographs produced on opaque backgrounds, that are scanned for color separations.
Registration The exact alignment of two or more printings on a sheet that create a single image.
Registration marks Hair liNe crosses used to accurately superimpose negatives in the proper position and ensure proper register.
Retouching A process used to improve an original illustration or photograph, now often done by computer.
Reverse out To print white type or a white image on a black or dark background.
Roman numerals Normally used on te prelims as separate numeration.
Rough Rough conceptual drawings composed by an artist or designer that show layout ideas, but are not accurate for specifications.
Rounding and backing In case-bound binding, a process where the back is convex, and a joint or shoulder is formed on either side of the spine.
Run-on chapters Chapters that start on the same page that the previous chapter ended on.
Running heads Headings at the tops of pages i a book. these may include the book, section, or chapter titles, and act as signposts FOR THE READER.
Same size Term used when n image is to be kept at the original size. Often abbreviated as s/s.
Sans serif In type design, any typeface that does not have a serif, or horizontal finishing stroke, at the end of stems, arms, and tails of the letters.
Scanner See electronic scanner.
Screen In prepress, a grid pattern of lines of dots aligned at 90 degree angles that is used to break down continuous tone art into a seriew of dots to create halftones. Also, the corresponding pattern created I the printed image.
Screen angles Angles used to offset the four different films of a color separation. The dot screens are angled to eliminate Moire patterns in the final images. The usual screen angles are 15 detrees for cyan, 75 degrees for magenta, 45 degrees for black, and 0 degrees for yellow.
Screen ruling Number of rinting dots per ich on the exposed film. The finer the screen ruling (i.e. more dots per inch) the higher the resolution. Screen ruling is generally determined by the porosity of the proposed paper stock.
Section A printed, folded sheet of 4, 8, 16, or 32 pages, which is collated with other sections to form a book block. Also known as a signature.
Separated artwork Artwork that has been produced or electronically broken down into black and white overlays (either positive or negative). Each overlay represents a different ink color. In four-color process printing, for example, four black and white negatives correspond to the colors cyan, magenta, yellow, and black, and will reproduce original color art.
Serif In type design, any typeface that has a terminal stroke at the end of stems, arms, and tails of the letters.
Show-through The degree to which the ink on one side of a printed sheet can be seen from the other side, as determined by the opacity of the paper.
Sizing Enlarging or reducing of original art.
Special color A customized ink prepared to match a color that cannot be matched using process colors or other inking systems.
Specifications Instructions written by publishers or designers on how the book is to be produced. This includes information on size, text, and cover stock, and ink colors.
Spine The bound edge of the book.
Square-back binding A binding method where rounding and backing operations are omitted; practical as a binding method for single section books.
Stripping Preparation and assembly of film into complete negatives that will be used to make printing plates.
Tail The bottom of the page.
Text area The area on a page within the margins that is occupied by text. Also, the main body of a book, excluding prelims and back matter.
Tip-in Normally, a separate page pasted into a finished book with a strip of adhesive.
Title The title of the work as it appears on the title page.
Trapping In printing, a minuscule extended edge o one color area that slightly overlaps the next color.
Type family A group of weights and widths of a particular typeface. A complete type family might include light, medium, semi-bold, bold, extra-bold, all with italic, condensed, and extended versions.
Unjustified type Text that has been set flush left with the opposite edge uneven.
USCO United States Copyright Office (USCO) is an organization "to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries" (U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 8)
Varnish A clear coatig appllied on the press to protect and enhance a book cover or jacket.
Verso The left-hand page of a book.
Vignette An illustration with no definite borders, that fades gradually at the edges into the background.
X-height The height of lowercase letters, without ascenders or descenders, as measured from the baseline.
X*NET X.NET was created by the Evangelical Christian and Protestant Church-Owned Publishers Association/Christian Booksellers Association/Gospel Music Association to provide electronic data interchange service (EDI) to publishers within the Christian community. X.NET results in faster turn-around, improved accuracy and lower operating costs for Christian publishing, music, gifts, and other aspects of the industry.

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